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Student Study Guide: country outline

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1 Student Study Guide: country outline on September 17th 2009, 22:54

Outline of countries

United States of America:
  • Current stance on the War on Terror (both in Iraq and Afghanistan)
  • Considerations for the Declaration of Human Rights
  • United Nations reform proposals
  • Position towards small arms trade in Africa, look global perspective too
  • Exploitation of international principles, Guantanamo and Iraq abuse scandal
  • Current regards to climate change international policies, signed UNFCCC
  • Cold War overview – tensions between US and USSR
  • Sovereignty consideration in dealing with Kosovo (1999) and Tibet (2008)
  • Foreign affairs under Barack Obama versus former president George Bush
  • Islamic hatred of the West – why is this so?
  • Axis of Evil (Bush invention) – what countries belonged to this list and why?
  • Closing of Guantanamo bay and withdrawal of American troops in ME and western Asia (Obama)
  • Northern Alliance Treaty Organization – does it work?
  • Outlook of Nuclear Weapons, considerations for the NPT and the IAEA agency, under current political establishment
  • Position on the Iranian nuclear energy dilemma – remains in favor of sanctions?
  • “Latin America is the United State’s backyard” bounded with the Alliance for Progress – how is this so?
  • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, dating currently to Darfur
  • Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan
  • Arms Control and Disarmament agency – how far does it go?
  • Strategic Arms Limitation treaty in 1972, the SALT I , and SALT II not ratified
  • Vietnam War – how does this affect absolute reign of US in global terms?
  • Camp David Accords in 1978, medium to the Arab-Israeli relations
  • Regards to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – why still left unsigned?


Relations with other countries
Alliance with Great Britain, 1958 Mutual Defense Agreement
Historical disputes with China and Russia, 1901 Boxer Protocol and 2002 Moscow Treaty
Relations with France under Sarkozy
Ties with the Jewish state of Israel, 69 Security Council resolutions vetoed
Controversial speaking of Iran under Ahmadinejad and North Korea with Kim Jong, any prospects of peace treaties?




People’s Republic of China:
  • Involvement with the Human Rights council and Tibetan HR abuses
  • Mao Zedong as national hero and Marxist influence propelling the Communist revolution in 1920s and 1930s becoming chief of state in 1949
  • Positioning on current political status of Taiwan (Republic of China)
  • Diplomatic relations with Government of Tibet in exile and regards towards the Dalai Lama
  • Qing Dynasty and Opium Wars with Great Britain in 19th century
  • Ideology stands behind national interests?
  • China-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance in 1950
  • North Korean War between allied country North Korea and South Korea with assistance from the United States from 1950-1953
  • Building up Western ties in late 1960’s – why was Chinese-Soviet relations bitter?
  • Nuclear proliferation stance, opinion on Iran’s nuclear capacity has varied over the course of the years?
  • Response to Cambodia under Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge (1974-1978) sufficient?
  • Economic development, the “next world power”
  • Non-aligned Movement effects on Chinese policies
  • Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 – how did it contribute to fall of communist governments?
  • Relationship with nations belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • East Asia Summit, adopted policies and pragmatic rules
  • Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with Russia under Putin in 2001
  • Shangai Cooperation Organization with central Asian countries – how is this effective?
  • Bordering countries, closely analyze how being surrounded has been both an advantage and a disadvantage to China
  • Opposition to Japan and India’s adherence to the permanent Security Council seats
  • Political behavior towards the Darfur Crisis and supplement of weapons to rebel armies
  • Why is China an exception to the Kyoto Protocol?


Relations with other countries
Affinity with Pakistan and third World countries in Southwest Asia
Correlation in present days with North Korea and positioning over nuclear weapons
Small trading relationship with Somalia
Role as Sudan’s biggest trade partner; oil for armaments
Close ties with both Palestinians and Israelis
Alliance with Russia



Russian Federation:
  • Relationship with Chechnya – should Russia grant independence to young rebels?
  • Decline of the Soviet Union in 1991 (try answering 5 basic questions)
  • Overview of Stalin’s authoritarian regime and strikes during the Cold War, including invasion of Afghanistan in 1989
  • Latest stance over Georgia’s sovereignty and Responsibility to Protect South Ossetia and Abkhazia leading to military intervention
  • Regards on proliferation of nuclear weapons and missile shields
  • Favoring of Iran’s nuclear energy program – but why vote for sanctions in 2007?
  • Recognize countries formerly part of the Soviet Union and analyze present relations (situation in Ukraine and Kazakhstan)
  • Reasons for maintaining military bases in former colonies; Armenia, Georgia, Tajikistan…
  • Dealing with Kosovo in different manners than NATO and the European Union – why?
  • How does Russia currently sponsor and mediate the Middle-eastern peace process?
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 1998
  • Position towards protecting areas of influence in North Pole, reason behind this
  • Territorial disputes with neighboring nations such as; Japan, China, and Norway
  • Relationship with Venezuelan president Hugo Chaves and American president George Bush
  • Why are ties with Baltic States tense even today?
  • Escalating strains with the United States in 2007 over European missile shields
  • Back to World War I check treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the Molotov-Ribbenthrop Pact in 1939 with Germany
  • Moscow Peace Treaty in 1940 ends Winter War with Finland
  • Anglo-Soviet Treaty in 1942 establishes twenty years of mutual assistance between United Kingdom and USSR
  • CIS Collective Security Treaty established framework for Commonwealth of Independent States in 1992 from former Soviet Union
  • Define and understand the Kremlin accords
  • Position towards small arms trade in Africa and assisting rebel groups by prolonging civil wars
  • SORT (Strategic Offensive Reductions) limiting nuclear arsenals of US and Russia in 2002


Relations with other countries
Treaty of Establishment, Commerce and Navigation 1940 with Iran
Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation in 2001
Political ties with Omar Al-Bashir in Sudan over Darfur Crisis
Acceptance of Pakistan’s authority over nuclear armaments
Relationships with Iran in contrast with Israel



United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
  • Monarchic rule from 1066 to present – what role does Queen Elizabeth II play in British politics?
  • Parliamentary system overview and checking significant PM’s such as Thatcher (1979-1990) and Tony Blair (1997-2007)
  • Conservative versus Labour parties, different international policies
  • “Gradualism” in Great Britain – how does this affect foreign affairs?
  • Position on transnational terrorism and how to contain the spills of Islamic fundamentalism (current War on Terror stance with Brown)
  • Suez Crisis with Egypt, Falkland War with Argentina and Konfrontasi with Indonesia
  • Gulf War with Iraq to present assignment of British troops in the region
  • Disputes in Yugoslavia over Kosovo – how this builds up to the Responsibility to Protect?
  • Ongoing clash with Iran’s nuclear energy program, dealing with imposing harsher sanctions
  • Relations with India “the jewel of the British Crown” as former colony
  • In becoming member of the European Economic Community in 1973, what were some effects?
  • How can only one-third of the British population believe the EU is a “good thing”?
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and Britain define spheres of influence in Middle-east
  • Treaty of Jedda grants Saudi Arabia independence from the United Kingdom
  • Anglo-Soviet Treaty provided a twenty year mutual assistance between USSR and the UK
  • Overview of the Central Treaty Organization between Great Britain and Arabic countries in 1954
  • Check the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty establishing a defensive alliance between US, UK, France and Southeastern Asian nations
  • The 1958 US-UK Mutual Defense Agreement on nuclear weapons cooperation
  • See the Sin-British Joint Declaration of 1984 over Hong-Kong, relations with China


Relations with other countries
Pakistan was colony from 1858 until 1947 – where does it stand now?
Allegiance with the United States
Familiarity with Israel and agreements with other Muslim countries
Cooperation with France in diplomatic terms



French Republic:
  • Background on monarchic period of French history, the French Revolution (1789) and later the Industrial and Technological Revolutions
  • Current diplomatic policies under Nicolas Sarkozy and his “peace-builder” character
  • Rwanda genocide in 1994 – where was the Responsibility to Protect then?
  • Sykes-Picot agreement with the United Kingdom in 1916 on spheres of influence in Middle-east
  • Treaty of Versailles formally ended World War I, how were French politics defined?
  • Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence provided to Syria in 1936
  • Overview of French Colonies in Africa, current territorial disputes still going on
  • In 1955 France signed the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty which consecrated a defense alliance between US, UK, Russia and Southeastern countries
  • Regards to the European Union, supporting the development of an European Security and Defense Identity to protect the EU members/council
  • Late 1960’s the French condemned Israel for maltreatment of refugees and occupation of West Bank and Gaza Strip under Charles de Gaulle
  • Check Sarkozy’s Union for a Popular Movement party and what he advocates in public and international levels
  • Extensive aid programs, commercial activities, military agreements and cultural impact in former African colonies
  • What is the Fashoda syndrome?
  • France launched the Asia-Europe Meeting as a way to enhance their economic influences in China
  • How were the Paris Accords to end conflict in Cambodia relevant to the French financial means in Asia?
  • France doesn’t have diplomatic relations with North Korea – why?
  • Why doesn’t France recognize Taiwan (Republic of China) as an independent state – what are the benefits?
  • Collapse of the USSR strengthened or weakened ties with French government?
  • Sarkozy’s way of dealing with the Russian-Georgian 2008 crisis assisted him in building up this image of a “peace promoter” through the use of diplomatic means
  • The geopolitical clashes of France belonging to the European continent amid far off east Asia and African countries to the south
  • Dealing with immigration and transnational terrorism across borders
  • Trying to establish peace within the Sudanese territory and Eastern DR Congo and Northern Uganda regions


Relations with other countries
Current status of the French-American-British alignment over international issues
Once tense relations with Israel; where do these countries stand now?
Sanctioning Iran for its nuclear energy development reveals their ties
Political interests in China and Russia
Obligation towards ongoing civil wars in the entirety of the African continent



Arab Republic of Egypt:
  • Camp David Accords 1978 with Israel, mediated by US President Jimmy Carter; only Arab country to recognize Israel as a Jewish sovereign state
  • The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and how Egypt has played a major role in establishing political dialogue and diplomatic talks between authorities
  • Dispute with Sudan over Hala’ib Triangle between country’s borders, maintains good terms with nation though
  • Madrid Peace Conference of 1991 to discuss Middle-eastern disputes
  • Engaged in several outlines of solutions, where does it stand in regards to the Quartet’s Roadmap for Peace?
  • In what ways is it beneficial for Egypt to organize conferences, such as the Summit of the Peacemakers in 2000?
  • Issues dealing with immigration from victims of African wars and devastations by poverty
  • Why did Egypt began to build new relations with the West in early 1980’s?
  • Membership in the Developing 8 and the Organization of Islamic Conference
  • Egypt’s role in the latest 2008-2009 Israeli invasion of the Gaza Strip
  • First and Second Intifadas in Palestinian territories as a response to the brutal means taken by the Israeli Defense Force
  • Iranian-Egyptian relations brokered by the signing of the Camp David Accords, support for Iraq during eight years war, and close relation with the United States
  • Iraqi-Egyptian ties shattered in 1990 when Egypt joined UN coalition to force Iraq out of Kuwait
  • Historical affiliation with Sudanese government – in what ways does this affect Egypt’s stance over the Darfur Crisis?
  • Euro-Mediterranean Partnership , often speaker of the Arab group
  • How is Egypt currently viewed by world powers such as United States and China in contrast to the “ Muslim brotherhood”?
  • Anwar Sadat and his legacy after Arab-Israeli conflict of 1973
  • War on Terror; unwillingness to send Egyptian troops to Afghanistan or Iraq though a strong supporter and advocate
  • Where does Egypt stand in regards to the Responsibility to Protect? (referral to Iraq)




The State of Israel:
  • The British Mandate of Palestine until the 1947 Partition Plan (Resolution 181) dividing territory into Israel and Palestine
  • Six-day War in 1967; gaining military control over the Golan Heights (Syria), the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem
  • Yom-Kippur War in 1973
  • First and Second Intifadas – Palestinians with rocks against IDF military tanks
  • In 1978 the Camp David Accords made Egypt the first and only Arab country to recognize Israel as a sovereign state
  • Territory of Israel in reference to expansion towards West Bank and Gaza Strip over the years
  • Jewish illegal settlements in West Bank
  • Israeli-separation wall that passes the Green Lime Armistice agreement (against international law)
  • Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, Ariel Sharon, Ehud Olmert and their domestic and international policies
  • The 69 United Nations Security Council resolutions vetoed by the United States condemning Israel
  • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty that Israel hasn’t signed – does it have nuclear weapons?
  • Israel does not have diplomatic relationships with Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, Venezuela, North Korea and Iran
  • Interestingly, the United States invests more, in annual terms, in Israel then it does in the entire African continent
  • The water reservoirs that are split by the Israeli government among Jewish and Arabs
  • Overview of the latest Dec. 2008 – Jan. 2009 Gaza Strip Invasion
  • Check the June 2006 invasion of Southern Lebanon – for what means? Were they achieved?
  • Oslo Accords in 1993 between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
  • Israeli-Jordan Peace treaty in 1994 normalizing relations between countries
  • Views on terrorism and Islamic fundamentalists: Hamas, Fatah, Hezbollah and the Islamic Jihad
  • Evident stance on the War on Terror and measures to combat national and international terrorism
  • Religious ideologies in interference with political representations?
  • Search out any Israeli attempts to ease tensions and accelerate the peace process in the Middle-east, proposing the recognition of Palestine
  • Israeli Defense Force and its advanced military capacity




Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (NK) and Republic of Korea (SK):
  • Korean War ceasefire in 1953 and the 38th parallel
  • Position towards the Military Demarcation Line (MDL) and the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
  • The 1970’s and 1980’s abduction of Japanese and South Koreans
  • Sunshine policy emphasizing on the Korean reunification and diplomatic solutions to ongoing territorial and political disagreements
  • Participation in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 2000 so as to establish ties with Italy, Australia and the Philippines + UK, Germany and New Zealand
  • Nuclear facility at Yongbyon and where else?
  • Implications of the North Korean nuclear threat – global terms
  • The Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression, Exchanges, and Cooperation and the Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
  • United States policy toward North Korea
  • Conception of the International Atomic Energy Agency (its purposes) and the Nuclear-Non Proliferation Treaty
  • Inter-Korean nuclear bilateral inspection regime
  • U.S.-South Korea Team Spirit exercise in 1993 – collateral damage to diplomacy?
  • Agreed Framework of 1994 and the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO)
  • Heavy water reactors and light water reactors – physics behind creating an atomic bomb and North Korea’s technological capacities
  • Six Parties Talk in 2003 and 2006; China, NK, SK, United States, Russia and Japan
  • Proof that North Korea helped Syria build nuclear facilities bombed by Israel in 2007
  • United Nations Security Council 1874 (2009) and 1695 (2006)
  • Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) and its role in divulging polemic issues?
  • North Korea does not have diplomatic relations with France and the United States
  • How to achieve peace and stability in Korean peninsula?
  • Kim Jong II and Lee Myung-back and their political differences
  • Elusa Treaty in 1905 between Korean empire and Japanese empire
  • The 1910 Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty declared null in 1965 – what happened?
  • Southeast Asia Collective Treaty signed by South Korea in 1954
  • In 1965 the Treaty of Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea
  • Recent polemic news on the North Korean missile crisis (the five basic questions) and solutions to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons in global terms




Republic of the Sudan:
  • Water shortages due to Lake Chad
  • Ethnic cleansing and the United Nations definition of Genocide
  • Sudanese Government Support for Janjaweed
  • On-going Darfur Crisis (started in 2003)
  • Massive displacement of civilians to neighboring countries; Chad and Libya
  • How to deal with the refugees now that the government has expelled NGOs and independent humanitarian groups
  • Small Arms Trade: China and Russia selling weapons to rebels
  • Definition of Genocide and Crime against Humanity
  • Trial of Head of State Omar Al-Bashir by the International Court of Justice in March 2009
  • Reliability of International Court of Justice to arrest Head of States
  • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1951
  • Regards to Joseph Koni in Northern Uganda and Eastern DR Congo
  • Classification and overview of First and Second Sudanese Civil War
  • 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
  • Government of Sudan versus the Sudan People’s Liberation Army – treaties and agreements to be settled by 2011
  • Tripoli Agreement in 2006 ends Chadian-Sudanese conflict
  • Economic ties with the People’s Republic of China, North and South Korea, Russia, and Germany
  • How does support for Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, Hezbollah and the Lord’s Resistance Army (considered terrorist factions) influence international relations?
  • Expelling major aid agencies influencing decisions of foreign countries towards solving the Darfur Crisis
  • Interaction and partnership with the Muslim Brotherhood
  • Containing public atrocities and violation of Human Rights and international principles – how can this be done?
  • Opinion towards international terrorism and the very definition of the word
  • 1997 U.S. trade embargo against Sudan
  • African dilemmas; extreme poverty, hunger and AIDS plus the most important issue of security and establishing governmental legitimacy




The Republic of South Africa:
  • Overview of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa during the apartheid
  • Simonstown agreement in 1955
  • In 1984 the Nkomati Accord; non-aggression treaty with Mozambique
  • The post-apartheid South Africa – international relations and domestic affairs, admitted to Commonwealth of Nations
  • Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty in the 1990`s ending weapons program
  • Check Nelson Mandela and other pacifistic South African figures
  • United Nations Human Development Index of South Africa
  • African dilemmas; extreme poverty, hunger and AIDS plus the most important issue of security and establishing governmental legitimacy
  • The South African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union
  • Being mediator of African disputes in Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Comoros
  • Membership in the Group of 77 and South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone
  • Brief understanding of Constitution and Bill of Rights
  • African National Congress in 1999 and relationship with Israel – which is considered to have supported the apartheid regime
  • Considerations for the European Union
  • How does the fact that it was a colonial to the British realm affect the British-South African bond?
  • The Lusaka Accord in 1984 with Angola during the Angolan Civil War and South African Border War
  • The Brazzaville Protocol of 1988 between Angola, Cuba and South Africa to the withdrawal of Cuban troops from the Angolan territory
  • United Nations Resolution 1598 on racism
  • Conferences of African states from 1958-1963 on apartheid and racial discrimination
  • 1964 Conference for Economic Sanctions
  • Position on the European Union’s sanctions on Zimbabwe, appeals for withdrawal
  • Reflections on international and domestic terrorism – how to deal with these issues?
  • UN General Assembly in a non-binding resolution 1761 of 1962 to break and suspend all diplomatic relations with South Africa
  • African Union, current and future projects for African continent
  • Organization of the African Unity established in 1963 recommending economic sanctions to be imposed in South Africa – cooling of tensions due to what?
  • UN Security Council, with US support, UK, France abstaining, adopts Resolution 181 recommending that member states cease shipment of arms to South Africa
  • South Africa institutes new constitution under Prime Minister P. W. Botha in 1984
  • In 1985 announces that it is abolishing Mixed Marriages Act, provisions of Immorality Act prohibiting sexual relations between races
  • The UN General Assembly agrees to remove the oil embargo in 1993 and UN Security Council lifts its 1977 arms embargo against South Africa in 1994




Republic of Pakistan:
  • Considered a failed state back in 2006 and 2007 – viable to surrender to this category again?
  • Fault line between Afghanistan and Pakistan, North Waziristan, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
  • Civilian and military support for Taliban versus governmental dictations
  • Finance of opium poppy plantations both inside and outside borders, issue with warlords
  • Swat Valley in North West frontier Province (NWFP)
  • Contradicting information regarding Pakistani population discernment, regards to the Al-Qaeda, 45% of support
  • Osama Bin Laden and the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks
  • Refugees issue spilling to neighboring countries
  • Muslim brotherhood
  • U.S. intervention (War on Terror) versus sovereignty
  • Overview of the Kashmir dispute with India – recent building up of tensions due to what?
  • Considerations for the Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency when possessing nuclear armaments
  • Position towards Iran’s nuclear energy program and how Pakistani officials have in many ways provided Iranian scientists with documents on how to build a bomb
  • Terrorist bombing s of Mumbai, largest city of the country, in 2008 and India’s response saying Pakistani Intelligence was behind attacks – charges true?
  • Liaquat-Nehru Pact between Pakistani and Indian Prime Ministers in 1950
  • Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty of 1954
  • Indus Water Treaty established sharing of water reservoirs between India and Pakistan
  • After the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Simla Treaty of 1972
  • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto (including assassination)
  • Lahore Resolution in 1940
  • Instrument of Accession signed by India in 1947 – does it exist?
  • Check United Nations Security Council resolutions 1948, 1949, 1950 and 1951
  • Strongest diplomatic relations are those with Sudan, Russia, Libya and China
  • Being among the “axis of evil” during Bush mandate, how has this changed with Obama?
  • Sponsoring and financing terrorism a reality?




More to come on Somalia, Iran and Venezuela

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