PREPARING A SPEECH:
Following the writing of a resolution, the student should prepare speeches. Planned speeches are often the most effective because they can make full use of rhetoric. They can also be recycled in debate as a talking point. In MUN, speaking “off the cuff” is necessary, especially during points of information, but this is much easier with some talking points to guide delegates on certain issues.
It is recommended to write out a speech in full ahead of time and memorize it, but it is not recommended to read a speech word for word (in reading, speeches can become monotonous and delivery is harmed).
The objective of a speech is to persuade and even convince others, not merely to state an opinion. In some cases, a nation’s policy may place a student in a position where he must defend the indefensible and cannot be expected to persuade a majority to support him. In preparing speeches, students must be aware not only of their strengths and weaknesses, but also be aware of the points to be made by others. It is often wise to pre-empt certain counter-arguments by answering them in your speech. Overall, it is advisable to list arguments and counter-arguments so that the delegates will be prepared to defend their views as well as make proposals.
Remember: a speech is heard only once and, therefore, needs to leave a strong impression. The audience will remember the important parts of a speech, those short, clear sound-bytes that crystallize an idea. A speech that is short, clear and well structured will be much more effective than a long, confusing, and rambling one. The key elements to an effective speech include the following:
1) The most important points are arranged in ascending order with the final point a climax.
2) Numbering the points is helpful to the speaker in delivering the speech and to the audience in remembering it.
3) Use a key word or phrase for each argument and repeat the main points before yielding the floor.
The advanced speaker has taken the next steps in preparing his techniques in delivery. Besides building repetitions, using catch phrases and rhetorical pauses, he has worked out his stance (firm, dogmatic, ironic, conciliatory, etc.), the image he wants to project (idealistic, revolutionary, moderate, etc.), and the appropriate level of language needed for the role he is assuming. The MUN Directors and caucus leaders can often help in the selection of appropriate terminology, phraseology and vocabulary as delegates prepare speeches in the classroom.
Speakers should deliver their speeches in a clear, loud voice. Every speech should have an obvious beginning, e.g. “Madame Chairwoman, ladies and gentlemen, the delegate is in favor of this resolution because…..”, followed by arguments that are to the point, and an obvious ending, e.g. “Therefore, I urge the House to vote in favor of this resolution. I will now yield to points of information.” Points of information must be phrased in the form of a question, but that does not imply that they are used to elicit information from the speaker. In many cases, they are used rhetorically in order to express an opinion when one does not have the floor or to support or disconcert the speaker who does have the floor, e.g. “Does the speaker not agree with me that the recent strike against unarmed civilians in Iraq can only be regarded as murder?”
The speaker who has the floor should not allow himself to be put off by points of information. He can, however, take the opportunity to reply to the question in any way he chooses either re-emphasizing his earlier points earlier or using the question as a springboard to launch into another argument. Points of information should never be answered by a simple “yes” or “no” which would be a wasted opportunity. It is during this stage of answering points of information that the debate is the liveliest, so students should be encouraged to answer points which arise and not simply yield the floor after delivering their prepared speech.
Good morning delegates of the house and chairperson. My name is -------- and along with ------, I represent the country of -----------.
Bombing of Marine Barracks, Beirut, October 23, 1983: Casualties: 242 Americans, 58 French troops. Air India Bombing, June 23, 1985: 329 people killed. Pan Am 103 Bombing, December 21, 1988: 259 deaths. World Trade Center, September 11, 2001: 3,025 casualties. This did not stop. 2005: about 11,000 terrorist attacks: 14,200 deaths. 2006: 14,000 terrorist attacks. 20,000 deaths.
Terrorism has been part of our world for too long. We may not see the end of it in our lifetimes. Today, what we can do is start to truly fight it, to take measures against it. Pakistan, living with the daily reality of terrorism within its borders and frustrated with halfhearted global efforts to combat it, is here to propose to the present delegations a comprehensive counter-terrorism strategy.
First, we propose that the United Nations Development Organization and the World Bank work together to help Afghanistan combat poverty and improve its economy. While this may not initially seem like a direct strike against terrorism, we believe it is. Al Qaeda is powerful and is not merely confined to Afghanistan, but despite the presence of US troops, it is re-grouping and gathering strength largely because the country is not secured. If we stabilize Afghanistan, we weaken terrorist groups.
Second, Pakistan asks that other nations support its decision to build a security fence with cameras along the Durand Line. Al Qaeda has been spreading its organization across the porous mountainous border between Afghanistan into Pakistan, and we are certain that no nation present here today desires that the Al-Qaida gain control of a greater area. The fence will NOT be permanent. But t is a necessary stop-gap measure given the current situation. Once Afghanistan is more stable, Al Qaeda weaker and Pakistan certain that it is not threatened, the fence will be removed.
Unfortunately, Pakistan has lost control over the North Waziristan Region. The government has already attempted a deal, but it was broken. 70% of North Waziristan’s population supports Bin Laden. Clearly, they do not intend to stop helping terrorists from Afghanistan to enter the country. Therefore, Pakistan asks that UN troops be sent to aid the military as it combats terrorism in the region. We cannot do it alone.
Pakistan also proposes the creation of a Global Counterterrorism Intelligence System. The idea is not new, but it is improved. Composed only of nations willing to cooperate, the organization will use the combined information of all member nations on terrorism in order to track down terrorists and terrorist facilities, predict targets of the terrorist organizations and map regions controlled or in great risk of being controlled to present by terrorist groups to the United Nations for action.
These actions will weaken terrorism, will protect the people, will be a new step towards global security. However, we don’t need only to punish, to hunt, to weaken. Terrorism is like cancer. People track it, they fight it, and they try to remove it, to keep it from spreading. But, if any is left, it can grow strong again, spread again. We cannot only weaken terrorism, destabilize the organizations. What we need to do is seek the root cause, to keep people from deciding to become terrorists, to show people that terrorism is not right.
That is why Pakistan proposes today, along with the immediate measures and the intelligence system, a new idea: a change in the educational program. Pakistan believes that the hatred causing terrorism may be attributed to lack of knowledge and therefore respect between Islamic and Western peoples. Governments of all nations will have to encourage the implementation of secular education in schools by aiding schools that cooperate. Islamic nations and Western nations will have to implement in their schools the study of each other’s culture, political system, religious beliefs and standards of morality and exchange programs will become more accessible and be encouraged. Some people will call this measure ineffective. But has combat solved it? Have the techniques used up to now solved it?
Yes, many are effective. Yes immediate measures DO need to be taken. But, if we don’t start opening the eyes of our youth, showing them that they do not have to hate another culture, and even it they don’t like it, they must respect it; we will never be rid of terrorism. Many Muslims claim that westerns do not have morals. They do, only their morals differ from that of Islamic culture. Many westerns believe that the caricature made of our God, Allah with suicide bombers in heaven, was but a right of the cartoonist due to freedom of press, when in fact, it was very insulting to our culture, in which religion is very powerful. Maybe we cannot change the minds of adults, but if we can generate between the youth of the different cultures a sense of respect, then terrorism can indeed end.
Help to Afghanistan, a fence, UN troops on the North Waziristan region, a Global Counterterrorism Intelligence Sharing System, and a global educational reform. Pakistan’s resolution is a step towards fighting this global concern. Approving this resolution is making the decision to work towards global peace and security. Approving this resolution is approving of the right of every person to life. Approving this resolution is not about liking or disliking Pakistan. It’s not about economic or political interests. It’s about the people you, delegates are here to represent. The people are here to try to keep safe. It’s about the world that all of us, as members of the United Nations have pledged to protect. Terrorism cannot continue to flourish unhindered. It has claimed too many lives, caused too much grief and fear; for far too long. Will we unite against it or will we continue to do nothing, paralyzed by fear and overwhelmed by the task at hand? Let’s be courageous and face this fear head-on. Together, we can fight this war on terror. That is why I urge you to support this resolution.
I am now open to points of information.